Insect Eyes

H-V complete map of the right eye of female musca domestica obtained with our GRACE system. See how the horizon (anterior and posterior) requires less sensors than the dorsal and ventral regions.

Wonder how the insects map the world? First, imagine an unitary sphere. Secondly, build a machine capable of scanning such a sphere. Finally, put an eye of an insect inside your imaginary sphere and voilà!

Obviously, the process is more complicated than that. Nonetheless, it is a complex problem that is about to be solved.

Both, biologists and air- and spacecraft designers will benefit from our results since our model is one of the most accurate representations of the insect's angles of attack. Such model could explain neurological connections in insects eyes, and could finally break the paradigms of navigation and vision of modern systems.

See an introduction to the system in the videos below.

Stay tune!


  1. Fonseca Aguilar, O, Muñoz Arias, M & Stavenga, D 2019, GRACE Project: model-based control of a nonlinear actuator. in Benelux Meeting of Systems and Control. 2019 edn, KU Leuven, Lommel, Belgium, 38th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control 2019, Lommel, Belgium, 19/03/2019.

  2. Muñoz-Arias, M., Douglass, J.K., Wehling, M.F., Stavenga, D.G., 2021, Automated charting of the visual space of insect compound eyes, via ArXiv.